Vehicle Inspection Frequently Asked Questions

1, auto technical status: quantitative characterization of a time measured by the appearance and performance car the sum of the parameter values. 
2, vehicle test: to determine the state of technology or work vehicle inspection and measurement capabilities. 
3, automobile diagnosis: not collapse (or just remove the individual small pieces) conditions to determine the technical condition of vehicles, or identify the fault position, the reasons for the detection, analysis and judgments. 
4, automotive diagnostic parameters include the work of process parameters, with the process parameters and geometry parameters. 
5, the selection principle of diagnostic parameters: sensitivity, single value, stability, information, economy 
6 types of diagnostic criteria: national, industry, local authorities, enterprises 
7, the composition of the standard diagnostic parameters: the initial value of the Pf, Pd, and limits the allowable values of Pn. 
8, the measurement error of classification: according to that method of measurement error into the absolute and relative, according to the law of measurement error into the system occur randomly and negligence, according to the measurement error of the state is divided into static and dynamic. 
9, the absolute error is a measure of value and the difference between the measured values; the relative error is a measure of absolute error and the true value is the ratio of measured value, expressed as a percentage. 
10, the testing equipment commonly used reference error can not exceed the maximum permitted value, as the rating scale by precision, accuracy levels have 0.1,0.2,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,2.5,5.0 common 
11, system error: in the same measurement conditions, the same amount of multiple measurements, the measurement error of the size and symbols remain the same or change according to certain rules of error; random ~: in the same measurement conditions, measurement of the same value many times, the error The size and sign to unforeseen changing the way ~ 
12, engine assembly (cylinder pressure gauge); chassis assembly (toe feet); measuring tools and measuring instruments (electrolyte density meter, high-frequency discharge fork) 
13, inspection station type: press service function points (Integrated Security ~ Maintenance ~ ~); comprehensive inspection station by function (A Grade B Grade C); Security ~: periodic testing of vehicles with safety and environmental related projects to ensure safe driving cars, and contamination to the extent permitted; maintenance ~: from the perspective of the use and maintenance of vehicles, to carry out vehicle maintenance before and after the technical condition of detection; General ~: not only responsible for the safety of vehicle management department of environmental testing , but also responsible use of vehicles, maintenance, diagnosis of technical condition of the enterprise, but also to undertake research or teaching in the performance test and parametric test; A-level points: to fully assume the task of inspection station; B-class stations: the use of vehicle technology capable of undertaking status and quality of vehicle maintenance inspection; C-class station: to assume the technical conditions of the test vehicle. 
14, data input and security devices car inspection station: the station in addition to vehicle computer and login information sent to the main control computer test line, but also a vehicle lighting and safety devices, the upper part of projects such as visual inspection, may be referred to as L station. Skid braking speedometer station: by the sliding test, axle load testing, brake testing and speed detection of the composition table, referred to as ABS station. Light gas station: the main by the headlamp testing, emissions testing, smoke detection and speaker sound level detection component, referred to as HX ~. Vehicle inspection stations referred to as P ~, the station is at the bottom of the visual inspection of the vehicle, officers detected a trench by a manual inspection of the equipment chassis and engine of the connection is solid and reliable, without bending and torsion fracture, Songkuang and oil spills, air and water leakage, leakage and so on. 
15, axle braking force and the percentage of axle load = (left wheel right wheel braking force + ~) / axle load * 100% 
16, ABS-station testing procedures: 1) four-wheel vehicles (rear-drive, the latter in): spin - front brake - the rear brake - parking brake - Speed Table 2) four-wheeled vehicles (predecessor, former Ambassador) : spin - front brake - parking brake - speedometer - the rear brake 3) four-wheeled vehicles (precursor, after-resident): sliding - front brake - speedometer - the rear brake - parking brake. 
17, the oscilloscope displays the voltage versus time waveform, is a multi-purpose vehicle testing equipment, the fire department can be used to display electric wave, electronic components, wave, waveform, and the engine high pressure fuel pipe uses more and more abnormal sound wave, etc. wide. Its basic function is to display the voltage changes with time, except for the observed change of state, but also can detect the voltage, frequency and pulse width 
18, the cylinder and the cylinder seal, cylinder head, cylinder liner, piston, piston rings and into the exhaust valve and other parts of the technology related to the situation; cylinder seal of the diagnostic parameters are the cylinder compression pressure, the crankcase gas leakage, the amount of cylinder leakage , cylinder leakage rate and intake manifold vacuum and so on. 
19, the cylinder pressure gauge testing conditions: the engine is running to normal operating temperature. Starter drive with all the spark plug lead has been removed or injector engine running, its speed should be consistent with the provisions of the original. 
Standard diagnostic parameters: the engine cylinder pressure should be not less than the original value of 85% of the design requirements, each cylinder of the cylinder pressure and mean pressure difference, gasoline should be less than 8%. Diesel is not more than 10%; overhaul completed in the engine cylinder pressure should be consistent with the original design requirements, each cylinder pressure and the difference between the average pressure of each cylinder, gasoline does not exceed 8%, not more than 10% of the diesel engine 
20, FA contact closure, the first generation of secondary closed oscillation and then, a certain negative secondary voltage by the gradual change to zero

21, Engine Knock categories: mainly machinery abnormal sound, burning abnormal sound, air force and other abnormal sound and electromagnetic abnormal sound. 
(1) mechanical motion pair with the abnormal noise is mainly with the surface after the gap is too large movement caused by damage due to shock and vibration. 
(2) combustion engine is not normal abnormal noise is mainly caused by combustion. 
(3) air force is mainly abnormal sound in the engine air intake, exhaust line and the running of the fan at, caused by air vibrations. 
(4) abnormal sound is mainly electromagnetic engine, electric motor and some electromagnetic devices, due to alternating magnetic field, causing some parts of machinery or a part of the space caused by vibration. Abnormal sound of the engine speed factors, temperature, load and lubrication conditions; gasoline engine overheated, tend to produce ignition knocking (detonation or surface fire); diesel engine temperature is too low, tend to produce fire percussion (rough work .) 
22, the crankshaft main bearing ring: 
1) phenomenon: the car suddenly accelerated speed driving or the engine, the engine is heavy and strong, "clang, clang, clang" or "just, just, just," the metal tapping sound, great place severe body vibration, noise with increase the engine speed increases with the increase of the load increased, the site produces a sound crankshaft axis of the crankshaft is flush with the Department, the cylinder off the fire when the sound did not change significantly off the fire while the two adjacent cylinders, the sound was reduced or lost, the sound did not change significantly when the temperature changes, severe noise, oil pressure was significantly reduced. 
2) reasons: 
(1) crankshaft main bearing cap screw loose; 
(2) main bearing crankshaft grinding gold to burn or cut off 
(3) crankshaft main bearing and journal wear off very, axial thrust device wear off even, causing the radial and axial clearance is too large 
(4) crankshafts have not been corrected, the engine had to be loading some of timeliness and the crankshaft main bearings with the gap amplification (5) low oil pressure, oil viscosity is too small or bad. 
23, the crankshaft connecting rod bearing ring: 
1) phenomenon: the car ride and the engine suddenly accelerated speed, the engine is "clang, clang. Clang" continuous clear, light and short metal percussion (main features); rod bearing serious Songkuang when idle can also be the sound was heard, and the oil pressure is reduced; engine temperature changes, the sound did not change significantly; noise increase with engine speed increases, the increase with the load increased, the site produces a sound in the upper crankcase; cylinder off fire, noise was reduced or lost, but the re-emergence of complex fire Shiyou, the sound of a so-called "on the tank" phenomenon. 
2) reasons: 
(1) a fixed crankshaft connecting rod bearing cap bolts loose or broken 
(2) crankshaft connecting rod bearing gold burned or cut off running 
(3) connecting rod bearing or crankshaft journal wear off even, causing too much radial clearance 
(4) within the pass connecting rod journal crankshaft oil Road congestion 
(5) Oil pressure too much, too small or the viscosity of the oil deterioration 
24, transmission swimming point of view, is the clutch, transmission, universal joint transmission, drive axle angle and swimming, also known as the transmission angle of the total swimming. Experienced test for detection methods and equipment test; instruments have Analog and digital testing; pointer detector by the pointer, dial, measuring wrench composition, digital sensors and measuring the angle formed; experience detection test steps: Check with the experience of detection angle of transmission can be segmented for swimming, then the angle sum of the segment surging overall transmission system can be swimming angle. 
(1) swimming in the clutch and the transmission angle examination: clutch area is combined with state of transmission linked to the file you want to check on, release the parking brake, and then in the car under the transmission output shaft by hand or in the flange plate brake disc from one extreme position to the other extreme position, the angle between the two extremes is the location of the file under the clutch to the transmission output from the moving angle. In turn linked into each file, obtained under the stall angle of the swim. 
(2) universal swimming gear angle examination: support from the drive axle, tighten the parking brake, and then the car will drive under the bridge flange plate by hand from one extreme position to the other extreme position, the two extreme positions angle between the transmission device is the universal swimming angle. 
(3) Check the drive axle swimming angle: Release the parking brake, transmission in neutral position is set, drive axle brake the ground or in the state, and then the car will drive under the bridge flange plate from one extreme to another location extreme position, the angle between the two extreme positions is the drive axle of the swimming angle. Three sections above the moving train is the point of view. 
25, angle sensor and its role is to walk the sensor housing with the shaft angle is converted to the corresponding frequency of oscillation. 
26, swimming angle reference: clutch and gearbox <<= 5 ~ 15 degrees, drive axle <<= 55 ~ 65 degrees, universal gear <<= 5 to 6 degrees, powertrain <<= 65 ~ 86 degrees. 
27, the steering wheel free travel too large: 
1) phenomenon: the car stationary, the two front wheels straight ahead driving position does not move, gently turn the steering wheel back and forth, swimming angle was great; 
2) reasons: 
(1) steering wheel and the steering shaft connection Songkuang 
(2) the steering wheel in the main, from the engagement area Songkuang or driving and driven part of the bearing Songkuang 
(3) steering shaft and pitman arm pitman arm connection Songkuang 
(4) vertical and horizontal steering rod ball connection Songkuang 
(5) vertical and horizontal steering knuckle arm and the rod connection Songkuang 
(6) with the steering knuckle and kingpin Songkuang 
(7) wheel bearings Songkuang 
28, turned to heavy: 
1) phenomenon: the car driver traveling in the left and right turn the steering wheel, I felt heavy and laborious, is a sense of no return; car low-speed turn or U turn, turn the steering wheel more laborious; 
2) the reasons for 
(1) lack of tire pressure 
(2) active part of the steering bearing preload is too big or driven part (arm vertical axis) and the bushings tight 
(3) the main steering gear, adjusting the driven part of the tight meshing 
(4) or lack of lubrication oil-free steering 
(5) with the steering knuckle and kingpin too tight or short of oil 
(6) steering knuckle thrust bearing short of oil or damaged 
(7) vertical and horizontal steering rod connecting the ball head to adjust too tight or short of oil 
(8) and bent the steering wheel or steering shaft connected to the casing clashing, causing Scratches 
(9) kingpin inclination is too large, too large or the tilt wheel negative camber 
(10) before the beam, frame deformation, resulting in inaccurate wheel alignment 
29, automatic deviation: 
1) phenomenon: auto run to the side of a moving vehicle must be hard keeping guard at the steering wheel to maintain a straight line running 
2) reasons: 
(1) The two front tire pressure, ranging in diameter mixed or uneven loading compartment 
(2) The two front wheel hub bearing or oil seal tightness of the different 
(3) The two front wheel camber angle, caster angle, kingpin inclination angle range, or the front wheel toe on the uneven distribution of the two front wheels 
(4) ranging from about leaf spring or elastic deflection of different 
(5) before the beam rear axle shaft tube or frame horizontal plane bending occurs 
(6), ranging from wheelbase on both sides of the frame 
(7) wheels front and rear axles at both ends of unilateral or unilateral brake drag brake lag phenomenon 
(8) is too small or negative front toe toe 
(9) road camber or too much lateral wind 
30, wheel alignment testing, including the steering wheel (usually the front) for the detection and localization of non-steering wheels (usually the rear) to locate the test. Steering wheel and steering wheel positioning of non-detection, ie, front and rear positioning of the test, known collectively as the detection of wheel alignment. Including the front wheel camber front wheel alignment, front wheel toe, kingpin inclination and kingpin inclination, is to evaluate the vehicle front line driving stability, stability control, front axle and steering system technical condition of the important diagnostic parameters, after There are rear wheel positioning rear wheel camber and toe can be used to evaluate the rear of the line driving stability and the technical condition of rear axle 
31, static detection; is in the car stationary state, based on wheel rotation plane with the wheel alignment exists between the geometric relationship, directly or indirectly, with special testing equipment for wheel alignment angle measurement geometry. Testing equipment generally used in bubble level, optical, laser, electronic and microprocessor-based instruments such as wheel alignment or wheel alignment; dynamic detection method: a certain speed in the car driving in the state, with the testing equipment Detection of lateral force generated by wheel alignment, or the amount of the resulting wheel spin. 
32, bubble level at the applicable vehicle wheel alignment apparatus can be divided into two: one for large, medium and small cars, another for small cars. The former general from the water level, frame, dial (also known as the corner of Miriam), etc; the latter are generally composed of water level and dial. Turntable generally fixed disks, disk activity, sector scales, cursor direction pin, ball lock pin and a number of other components, the ball mounted on a fixed disk between disk and activities. 
33, the maximum front wheel angle detection: refers to the position of front-wheel drive in a straight line, respectively, to the left and right angle turn to the limit position. As some of the automotive steering gear arranged in the frame and the vertical bar on one side of the tire to prevent grazing, so the left and right of the maximum rotation angle is not equal. Detection method is as follows: 
(1) aligning the front wheels straight driving position, the dial is set at zero and the fan-shaped scales fixed 
(2) turn the steering wheel so the front wheel to go to extreme positions on either side, read out from the fan-shaped scales and record the angle on the value of the specified value with the original control. Not meet the requirements of the front wheel angle, by adjusting the limit screws on the steering knuckle, until it meets the requirements to date 
(3) turn the steering wheel so the front wheel to the other side go to the limit position, the same method described above can be measured by the other side of the front wheel angle value, and adjusted as necessary. 
34, wheel alignment can be detected include: front toe, front camber, kingpin inclination, kingpin inclination, rear toe, rear camber, track, wheelbase, rear axle thrust bad angle and the wheelbase is about 
 35, free rotation of the steering wheel, steering wheel is the location of stationary vehicle to go straight when the steering wheel gently from side to side angle measured in swimming. Steering wheel steering force, is certain driving conditions, the role of the outer edge of the circumferential force in the steering wheel. 
Diagnostic parameter criteria: 
1) free rotation of the steering wheel: motor vehicle steering wheel free rotation of the maximum amount of left or right from the middle of the corner are not more than. 
(1) The maximum design speed is greater than or equal to 100km / h the vehicle is 10 degrees 
(2) less than the maximum design speed of 100km / h for motor vehicles (excluding three-wheeled farm vehicles) is 15 degrees 
(3) three-wheeled farm vehicles, 22.5 degrees; 
2) The steering wheel steering forces: motor vehicle on a flat, hard, dry and clean concrete or asphalt roads to 10km / h speed within the 5s from the straight-line running along the spiral line over to the circumference of 24m diameter driving, imposed on the outer edge of the steering wheel shall not exceed the maximum tangential force of 245N 
36, wheel dynamic imbalance: even if static balance wheel, that is the focus of the center of rotation coincides with the wheel, it could be dynamic imbalance 
37, wheel imbalance reasons: 
1) wheels, brake drum (disk) allowed positioning axis machining, processing error, non-processed surface casting error, heat deformation, deformation or uneven wear in use 
2) the quality of wheel bolts ranging from uneven weight distribution hub or radial circular bound, face too round beating 
3) The uneven distribution of tire quality, size or shape error too large deformation or uneven wear in use, the use of retreaded tires or mats, fetal 
4) and twin inflatable mouth is not installed 180 degrees apart, the mouth is not a single tire inflated and unbalanced point markers separated by 180 to install 
5) wheels, brake drums, tires bolts, rims, inner tubes, lined with tires and other demolition and re-assembled into the tire, the accumulated balance of form and position deviation of the quality or too much damage to the original balance. 
38, wheel balancing machine types: according to the functions are divided into static wheel balancing machines and wheel balancing machines; separated by measurements on car-and truck-type ~; click wheel balancing machine shaft in the form of soft and hard sub-wheels ~ 
39, with the wheels on the car wheel balancer static unbalance detection principle: If the wheels of fragmented uneven ground, turning the up and down vibration transmitted through the steering knuckle or suspension of the sensing head detection device, adjustable pole and the base of the sensor. The sensor into electrical signals the control strobe flash to indicate the position the wheel imbalance, and enter the indicating device is unbalance. When the sensor head downward force is passed on when the strobe lights, the irradiation point of the lower part of the wheel is the most unbalanced points. When the balance point of the quality of the larger, the greater the force sensor, the greater the power transformation, indicating device indicates the value is also greater.
40, with the car wheels to detect wheel balancing machine dynamic imbalance and static imbalance of the principle of the same principle, except that the sensor head fixed to the brake on the floor, testing the lateral vibration. Vibration through the sensor head, adjustable pole spread the base of the sensor, the sensor into electrical signals the control strobe flash to indicate the position unbalanced wheels and wheel input to the indicating device indicates unbalance.

41, the balance weight wheel balancing machines, also known weight, usually clip-and-paste style of two types 
42, brake deviation: 
1) phenomenon: auto brake, the vehicle traveling direction of deflection; vehicle emergency braking, a vehicle rolling head or tail flick phenomenon. 
2) reasons: 
(1) around the wheel brake shoe friction plate material different or old and different 
(2) around the wheel brake shoes and brake drum friction plate by the combined area of mixed and rely on different co-location or different brake clearance 
(3) around the wheel brake wheel cylinders different technical conditions, resulting in the difference in time or open work force sizes 
(4) around the wheel brake shoe return spring tension different ... .... 
43, the output power of the test drive wheels, the chassis dynamometer. The purpose of the chassis dynamometer. First, the drive wheels in order to obtain the output power or driving force, in order to evaluate vehicle dynamics; the second is access to the drive wheels with the engine flywheel power output power output compared the transmission efficiency obtained in order to determine the technical condition of the chassis transmission 
44, chassis dynamometer test bed type: press dynamometer dynamometer devices in different forms, into the hydraulic type, power type and eddy current; by dynamometer dynamometer device way into the cooling air-cooled, water cooled type and oil-cooled; by roller device into a small carrying capacity (~ 3T "), medium (3 to 6), large (6 to 10) and large type (10) 
45, total vehicle fuel consumption by the sensor and measuring the general display instrument, both with cable connections, is divided into displacement (diaphragm type, the amount of tube and piston) and the quality of style. Four-piston motor fuel consumption by a flow meter measuring mechanism of the sensor and signal conversion agencies 
46, the installation method: the fuel gauge transducers connected in series for the pipe of the fuel: gasoline carburetor should be connected in series between the fuel pump and carburetor; diesel engine should be connected in series between the diesel filter and diesel pumps from high-pressure and low pressure return line back into the fuel return pipe should be connected between the fuel consumption meter sensor and fuel pump, so as not to repeat the measurement; electronic fuel injection engine fuel filter should be connected in series between the fuel distribution pipe, from fuel pressure regulator back into the fuel tank by the return pipe should be replaced by sensors connected to the total fuel consumption between the fuel distribution pipe, to avoid repeated measures. 
47, diagram of the gas separator; when mixed with the fuel gas into the gas separator float chamber, the gas will force the plane down the oil float chamber, the valve opens, gas into the atmosphere from the fuel tubing to the sensor will no gas, and to improve the measurement accuracy. 
48, side slip tester is to measure the vehicle front wheel lateral slip and a test to determine whether the qualified equipment, a roller skate type of points. Sideslip sideslip test the amount of test-bed main purpose is to ascertain the front wheel and wheel camber toe co-ordination is appropriate. Test bed is to use the skateboard sliding plate in the horizontal lateral force to slide under the principle of measuring the amount of front wheel spin. Front wheel camber (or negative camber) the role of the sliding board, regardless of the vehicle forward or backward, equal amount of its spin and sideslip in the same direction; front toe (or negative toe) on the sliding board role in the When the vehicle forward and back, although the amount of slip sliding in the opposite direction but equal. 
49, according to national standards detected with the front wheel sideslip sideslip test bed volume, and its value does not exceed 5m/km; vehicle can be braking distance, braking deceleration and braking performance of dynamic testing system, in which one of them found request that the sentence for qualified 
50, detected technical condition of the rear axle; addition to the rear part of the car has toe and camber, but a considerable portion of the rear car is not targeted. Sliding test rig can be used to detect the following are bending the rear axle and wheel bearings are Songkuang. 
1) making the car rear wheel side slip tester from sliding forward and backward pass through the board, such as the amount of two spin zero reading, indicating that no bending the rear axle 
2) If the amount of reading two non-zero spin, and the forward and backward pass through the sliding board, sliding and skidding equal to the amount of reading in the opposite direction, indicating that the rear axle in the horizontal plane bend a sliding board to move forward if outside the sliding back Shiyou Slide shows that after the shaft in the horizontal plane of the Ministry of forward bending of b if the sliding plate when the inward sliding forward and backward Shiyou Slide shows back within the Department of the bending in the horizontal plane 
3) If the amount of reading two non-zero spin, and the forward and backward pass through the sliding board, sliding and skidding equal to the amount of reading the same direction, indicating that release the rear axle in the vertical plane bending a slide out if the sliding board , indicating that after the shaft within the Department of bending in the vertical plane, if b Slide the sliding plate, indicating the Department after the shaft within the next bend in the vertical plane 
4) pass through the sliding rear number plate sliding test bed, each reading are not equal, that wheel bearings Songkuang 
51, the braking deceleration by testing different values and calculation methods are divided into deceleration, braking stability, the average reduction rate and the average reduction rate of the full issue. Braking Performance Test for the road test issued by the full deceleration FMDD the average index 
52, road test the disadvantages: 
(1) road test method can only measure the vehicle's braking performance, and for the difference in braking performance of the round, although from the trailer, stamping qualitative analysis, but can not obtain quantitative data. 
(2) failed for the braking performance of vehicles, different diagnosis of the exact location of fault. 
(3) the length of braking distance and braking deceleration of the size of the operation method is often because the driver, road conditions and traveling conditions vary pedestrian, poor reproducibility. 
(4) In addition to road conditions, road test will be limited by climate conditions. And because the risk of accidents 
(5) Road Test Method fuel consumption, tire wear, and parts of the entire vehicle departments have adverse effects. Braking performance of the test stand has detected rapid economic, security, free from outside limit of natural conditions, and test reproducibility and can quantitatively indicate the braking force of each wheel or braking distance, etc., and thus widely used. 
53, the type of brake tester: Test-bed measurement principle according divided into type and inertial reaction force, according to a different form of test-bed into the wheel bearing roller peace panel, press the test bench testing parameters measured braking force divided into type , the measured braking distance-and multi-style, test-bed measuring device according to the pointing device in different ways to send signals into mechanical, hydraulic type and electrical type, test bed at the same time can be measured by the number of axles divided into single-axis type, two-axis and multi-axis 
54, drum brake reaction test bed by the force measuring device lever, force sensors and force springs and other components: the drive by the motor, speed reducer and chain drive and so on. 
55, the brake in time is the coordination of emergency braking step, from start to operate the pedal to the vehicle deceleration (or braking force) to issue the required vehicles, the average reduction rate of the full 75% of the time required 
56, parking brake performance test: the no-load condition, the parking brake should be able to guarantee that the vehicles gradient of 20%, the adhesion between tire and road surface coefficient of 0.7 on the ramp not less than positive and negative in two directions remain stationary, the time of not less than 5min, tests applied to the force control device: hand operated, the seat is less than or equal to 9 passenger vehicles should be less than 400N, other vehicles should not exceed 600N , foot operated, the seat is less than or equal to 9 passenger vehicles should be less than 500N, other vehicles should not exceed 700N 
57, braking force balance requirements: growth in the whole process of braking force, braking force difference between left and right wheels left and right wheels with the axis of the braking force is greater in the ratio of the front axle shall not exceed 20%, not more than 24% of the rear axle. When a vehicle after inspection by the Bench questioned its braking performance, the available braking performance of the aforementioned road test inspection requirements (braking distance, the average reduction rate of the full issue) be retested, and full road test of the test results prevail. 
58, the state of technology in their normal circumstances, the tire rolling radius change is the main reason for the error caused by the speedometer. 
The speedometer indicated value and the actual speed value (test rig indicated value) compared to the instructions can be obtained speedometer error. 
Speedometer indication error = (speed table indicates the actual speed value --- value) / actual speed value 
Standard laboratory bench by the speedometer speed measuring devices, speed and speed alarm indicating device components; detection method: 
(1) Turn the power speedometer tester 
(2) raising the lifting device between the rollers 
(3) will open on the test bed vehicle to make relations with the speedometer and drive the wheels stop between the two rollers. 
(4) lowered the lifting device to the tire and lift out of control until the pallet. 
(5) For the standard speedometer tester, should: 
1) linked into the most exclusive car, release the parking brake, depress the accelerator pedal, the drive wheels driven smooth roller speed operation. 
2) When the cab speedometer to test the speed indication is stable, the reading test rig indicated value (actual speed); or when the indication is stable experimental platform to test the speed, the speedometer read the instructions cab value. 
(6) speedometer driven test bed, should: 
1) with the clutch speedometer tester, the cylinder and the motor together. 
2) linked to the vehicle transmission into neutral, release the parking brake, starter motor, driven through the roller wheel rotation. 
3) When the speed table to test the speed indication is stable, the reading test stand indicated value: or when the indication is stable test bed to test the speed, the speedometer read the indicated value. 
(7) to read data depresses the brake pedal gently, so that the rollers and wheels stop turning, the speed table-driven test bed, you must first turn off the motor power, and then step on the brake pedal. 
(8) rise lift, automotive test stand out. 
(9) test rig off the power, the end of measurement. 
Allowable error range of speed Table ~ -5% +20% 
59, luminous intensity light source in a certain direction that the visible light emitted radiation within the physical strength, in units of candela: illumination: is the object per unit area by the flux. 
= Luminous intensity of illumination / light square of the distance away 
60, the characteristics of the headlamp light distribution characteristics into the whole direction of the beam and the light of three parts. Light distribution characteristics: the use of such curves that the brightness of illumination distribution as ~; full beam: beam with a brightness distribution of longitudinal section of the light distribution curve to represent the section of the integral value (the volume of the rotation curve) is for the whole beam; irradiation direction: generally the place of the brightest headlamp beams as the optical axis. Center horizontal axis, vertical axis intersection of the deviation from the direction of that axis of the radiation, which is that the direction of the beam irradiation. 
61, because of the provisions of "fair use when the vehicle traveling at night near lights," so close to the correct position of light beam irradiation or not, is directly related to vehicle driving safety at night. 
62, four-lamp system for single-beam headlamp its light beam adjustment required height of the beam center on the screen for the 0.85H ~ 0.90H, horizontal position requires light to the left left no larger than 100mm, not the right side greater than 170mm; right-left or right side lights were not more than 170mm. motor vehicle equipped with dual-beam low beam lights to adjust the beam when the main beam. Newly registered cars: two light system 15000cd, four lamp system 12000, and then car; two light system 12,000, 10,000 four-lamp system 
63, projector-type headlight tester the measurement of the optical axis deviation method: projection screen scale dial detection and optical detection method.

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